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Catalyst for Cold Fusion
Catalyst for Cold Fusion
Oct 16, 2012 | Category: BuildEcats.com
This material was written by Belgian industrial chemist and patent attorney Joannes Van den Bogaert. He received several LANR (lattice-assisted nuclear reaction) patents in Belgium in the 1990s. He has written this hypothesis of what may constitute a catalyst for a vigorous cold fusion reaction. Hopefully, this will be helpful to some of you attempting to replicate some type of LENR reaction. It contains some interesting ideas by well-respected German chemists whose ideas are not widely known outside of the German-speaking world. This article touches on the work of Francesco Piantelli, Randell Mills and Andrea Rossi.
Catalyzed Nickel-Hydrogen Reaction
As you know, Andrea Rossi explains the working of the E-Cat reactor
operating with an exothermic reaction, relying strongly on the
transmutation of nickel into copper by hydrogen in particular
circumstances of pressure and temperature, using nickel powder in the
presence of an undisclosed catalyst (USPO application #2011/10005506
Al). Francesco Piantelli, in his method for producing energy (USPO
application #2011/0249783 A1),
uses micro/nanometric clusters of a transition metal, preferably
nickel, capturing negatively charged hydrogen atoms, i.e. H- ions (a
proton surrounded by a pair of electrons), having opposite spin
following Pauli’s Exclusion Principle
of differing quantum status of some Fermi particles (here electrons).
According to Piantelli, said H- ions can be obtained by treating, under
particular operative conditions, hydrogen H2 molecules that have been
previously adsorbed on said transition metal surface, with heating
needed to cause lattice vibrations, causing an interaction with valence
electrons of the metal and formation of H- ions.
According to Piantelli, the conditions are
created for replacing electrons of metal atoms with the H- ions having a
mass 1838 times larger than the electron mass. Such H- ions tend to go
towards deeper layers (towards the positive nucleus), and on their way
through the electron shells cause the emission of Auger electrons
and of x-rays while being captured by the metal core, causing a
structural reorganization and freeing of energy by mass defect.
Piantelli puts forward that the H- ions can now be expelled as protons,
and can generate nuclear reactions with the neighboring cores. Piantelli
makes it clear that the actual process cannot be considered as a fusion
process of hydrogen atoms, in particular of hydrogen isotope atoms.
Instead, the process has to be understood as an interaction of a
transition metal and hydrogen in general in its particular form of an H-
In that connection I draw attention to the resemblance of an H- ion to a muon, which is a negative particle being 207 times more massive than the electron, and are used in muon-catalyzed fusion.
From the muon, it is said, when it replaces one electron in a hydrogen
molecule, the nuclei are consequently drawn 207 times closer than in a
normal molecule. When the nuclei are this close together, the
probability of nuclear fusion is greatly increased, to the point where a
significant number of fusion events can happen at room temperature.
Unfortunately, current techniques for creating large numbers of muons
require large amounts of energy, larger than the amounts produced by
catalyzed fusion reactions. So, I propose to try to produce in an
economic way much more massive D- ions to obtain deuterium (tritium)
For the Piantelli invention, it is my hypothesis that negatively
charged hydrogen ion particles (H- ions) are not hindered from
contacting the positively charged transition metal nuclei, as no
repulsive Coulomb barrier exists between oppositely charged particles.
Consequently, the negatively charged hydrogen ions have only to tunnel
at relatively modest energy through the relatively largely spaced
electron shells of the positively charged transition metal ions of the
metal lattice to combine with a nickel nucleus, leaving 1 more proton
and thereby transforming that nickel nucleus into a copper nucleus and
expelling the surplus electron to be captured again in the electron sea
of the electro-conductive metal and therefrom to the positive potassium
ion left, that way regaining the catalyst. One electron of the H- ion
becomes a valence electron of the copper nucleus, restoring in that manner charge neutrality in the metal lattice.
Now is there still the question: Where does the energy come from?
The energy set free comes in my opinion from the difference in mass
between a free hydrogen ion (H+) and a proton (p+) locked up into the
nickel nucleus now becoming a copper nucleus associated with 1 electron
more than nickel. In that case no neutrons have to be set free and
cannot be detected.
Turning now to the production of H- ions it is not so exotic as one
may think. About six years ago dealing with the “hydrino” theory of Dr.
Randall Mills I came across a method for producing said ions from
metallic hydrides, more particularly alkali metal hydrides and earth
alkali metal hydrides.
In the German chemical textbook “Fundamentals of General and
Inorganic Chemistry” by Dr. Hans Rudolf Christen, I found under the
heading “Hydrogen Compounds” a passage that reads as follows:
“One of the simplest hydrocarbon
compounds includes substances which are formed at moderately high
temperatures of alkali or alkaline earth metals and hydrogen … they
contain, in addition to the positively charged metal cations, hydride
(H-) ions, and yield as molten salt on electrolysis hydrogen at the
anode. Formation of a salt-like solid is made possible by the not too
high, but measurable, electron affinity of hydrogen, particularly by the
large lattice energy of the hydrides.“
It is further mentioned that the H- ion is
practically of the same size as the F- ion, such being 1.36 Angström. On
page 560 of said German chemical textbook , I found : “Alkaline earth
metals calcium, strontium, and barium form salt-like hydrides with H-
ions as lattice elements,” which means that H- ions are linked to said
earth alkaline metals in their crystal structure.
Under the heading “Hydride” in the German textbook “Chemical Lexicon,” Prof. Dr. Hermann Römpp is mentioned as stating “lithium hydride is the most durable; the other hydrides of the alkali metals are decomposing above 400°C.”
From this it may be concluded that free H- ions may be obtained by
heating the hydrides of alkali metals above 400°C, such as sodium and
potassium, and likewise the hydrides of calcium, strontium and barium.
Turning now to a possible relationship of
the production of “Black Light” according to Dr. Randall Mills, and the
use of a catalyst(s) in the e-Cat fusion technique of Eng. Andrea Rossi,
I wrote a letter to the Dutch journal
“Natuurwetenschap & Techniek” (July/Aug. 2005), in which I expressed
the idea that H- ions were produced in the Black Light reactor of Dr.
Mills. As described in the article of Ernst van Eijk in said Dutch
journal, referring to an experiment of Prof. Dr. Kroesen of the
University of Eindhoven, potassium (vapor) was used in a hydrogen
atmosphere with the intention of producing energy and “Black Light”.
According to said experiment, a plasma had
been produced using potassium carbonate in a hydrogen atmosphere,
precipitated on a metal screen surrounding an electrically heated
tungsten spiral, with said plasma emitting a bluish light. Following the
opinion of Dr. Randall Mills, “hydrinos” are formed from the hydrogen
atoms present in the plasma.
In my reply to said experiment, I referred to the common knowledge that
potassium carbonate ( K2CO3) is decomposed by heating into K20 and CO2.
In the reducing atmosphere of hydrogen gas in the reactor, it is very
probable that potassium oxide (K20) undergoes reduction to free
potassium and water vapor according to the following equation:
(K20 + 2H → 2K + HOH)
Immediately followed by the exothermic
reaction of potassium with water vapor, a positively charged potassium
ion, a negatively charged hydroxyl ion, and a neutral hydrogen atom are
formed according to the following equation:
(K + HOH → K+ HO- + H)
When we have in the reactor free potassium (K) atoms, atomic
hydrogen (H) can react therewith, forming a not very stable hydride
(K-H), wherein potassium is positively charged (K+) and hydrogen
negatively charged (H- ) (see the above mentioned German chemical
textbook). When the reactor contains nickel clusters, atom transmutation
may take place with a said negatively charged hydrogen ion (H- ), which
may enter a nickel nucleus to transform it into a copper nucleus
representing an example of atom transmutation through a catalyst, in
this case potassium atoms.
Please note that Dr. Kroesen has repeated the experiment with
strontium grains, obtaining likewise a plasma and bluish light. By
combining strontium with atomic hydrogen, 2 H- ions are formed, and
according to my expectation, in the presence of nickel nuclei zinc
nuclei are obtained.
It is a bit strange that Eng. Andrea Rossi, although not mentioning
his “catalysts” in his US patent application, writes the following:
“Moreover, it has been found that, after having generated
energy, the used powders contained both copper and lighter than nickel
atoms (such as sulphur, chlorine, potassium, calcium). He mentions “This demonstrates that, in addition to fusion, also a nickel nucleus fission phenomenon generating lighter stable atoms occurs“.
At last I would like to say something about the “hydrino theory” of
Dr. Randell Mills, combined with “E-Cat fusion” as illustrated in the
article of Prof. Dr. Stremmenos “Hydrogen/Nickel Cold Fusion Probable
mechanism.” Herein it is said that the hydrino atom is a mini hydrogen
atom of reduced volume and
“The neutral mini-atoms of high energy and very short wave
length, which is in phase with the “cyclic” orbit (de Broglie) are
statistically captured by the nickel nuclei of the crystal structure
with the speed of nuclear reactions (10-20 sec)“.
Further he states
“The mechanism proposed by Focardi-Rossi, verified by mass
spectroscopy data which predicts transmutation of a nickel nucleus to an
unstable copper nucleus (isotope), remains in principle valid. The
difference is that inside the unstable copper nucleus, produced from the
fusion of the hydrogen mini-atom with the nickel nucleus, is trapped
the mini-atom electron (β-), which in my opinion undergoes in-situ
annihilation, with the predicted (Focardi-Rossi) decay (beta+) of the
new copper nucleus.“
If such would happen, gamma-rays of the annihilation should be
detectable. Further I like to point out that if hydrino atoms would be
formed in a “Black Light” reactor, they can in my opinion be rather
easily be detected with a mass spectrometer coupled to that reactor.
If neutral hydrino atoms (having a reduced radius with respect to
normal hydrogen atoms and lower mass) are found, then the Randell Mills
theory is on sound basis. I think that certainly H- ions having a
radius, as present in F- ions, will be found, confirming my theory that
potassium and alkaline earth metals such as calcium and strontium are
the real catalysts in forming H- ions, penetrating the Coulomb barrier
and yielding atom transmutation.
Added by: Ben
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